J Clin Psychiatry 65, no. 3 (2004): 421-5.
June 1, 2004

Epperson, C. N., M. Terman, J. S. Terman, B. H. Hanusa, D. A. Oren, K. S. Peindl, and K. L. Wisner.

BACKGROUND: Bright light therapy was shown to be a promising treatment for depression during pregnancy in a recent open-label study. In an extension of this work, we report findings from a double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study.

METHOD: Ten pregnant women with DSM-IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned from April 2000 to January 2002 to a 5-week clinical trial with either a 7000 lux (active) or 500 lux (placebo) light box. At the end of the randomized controlled trial, subjects had the option of continuing in a 5-week extension phase. The Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version was administered to assess changes in clinical status. Salivary melatonin was used to index circadian rhythm phase for comparison with antidepressant results.

RESULTS: Although there was a small mean group advantage of active treatment throughout the randomized controlled trial, it was not statistically significant. However, in the longer 10-week trial, the presence of active versus placebo light produced a clear treatment effect (p =.001) with an effect size (0.43) similar to that seen in antidepressant drug trials. Successful treatment with bright light was associated with phase advances of the melatonin rhythm.

CONCLUSION: These findings provide additional evidence for an active effect of bright light therapy for antepartum depression and underscore the need for an expanded randomized clinical trial.